chrysanthemum

Chrysanthemum

Chrysanthemums, sometimes called mums or chrysanths, are flowering plants of the genus Chrysanthemum in the family Asteraceae. They are native to Asia and northeastern Europe. Most species originate from East Asia and the center of diversity is in China. Countless horticultural varieties and cultivars exist.

Over 140 cultivars of chrysanthemum have gained the Royal Horticultural Society‘s Award of Garden Merit (confirmed 2017).[11]

Chrysanthemums are divided into two basic groups, garden hardy and exhibition. Garden hardy mums are new perennials capable of wintering in most northern latitudes. Exhibition varieties are not usually as sturdy. Garden hardies are defined by their ability to produce an abundance of small blooms with little if any mechanical assistance, such as staking, and withstanding wind and rain. Exhibition varieties, though, require staking, overwintering in a relatively dry, cool environment, and sometimes the addition of night lights.

The exhibition varieties can be used to create many amazing plant forms, such as large disbudded blooms, spray forms, and many artistically trained forms, such as thousand-bloom, standard (trees), fans, hanging baskets, topiary, bonsai, and cascades.

Chrysanthemum blooms are divided into 10 different bloom forms by the US National Chrysanthemum Society, Inc., which is in keeping with the international classification system. The bloom forms are defined by the way in which the ray and disk florets are arranged. Chrysanthemum blooms are composed of many individual flowers (florets), each one capable of producing a seed. The disk florets are in the center of the bloom head, and the ray florets are on the perimeter. The ray florets are considered imperfect flowers, as they only possess the female reproductive organs, while the disk florets are considered perfect flowers, as they possess both male and female reproductive organs.

Irregular incurves are bred to produce a giant head called an ogiku. The disk florets are concealed in layers of curving ray florets that hang down to create a ‘skirt’. Regular incurves are similar, but usually with smaller blooms and a dense, globular form. Intermediate incurve blooms may have broader florets and a less densely flowered head.

In the reflex form, the disk florets are concealed and the ray florets reflex outwards to create a mop-like appearance. The decorative form is similar to reflex blooms, but the ray florets usually do not radiate at more than a 90° angle to the stem.

The pompon form is fully double, of small size, and very globular in form. Single and semidouble blooms have exposed disk florets and one to seven rows of ray florets. In the anemone form, the disk florets are prominent, often raised and overshadowing the ray florets. The spoon-form disk florets are visible and the long, tubular ray florets are spatulate. In the spider form, the disk florets are concealed, and the ray florets are tube-like with hooked or barbed ends, hanging loosely around the stem. In the brush and thistle variety, the disk florets may be visible.

In Japan, a form of bonsai chrysanthemum was developed over the centuries. The cultivated flower has a lifespan of about 5 years and can be kept in miniature size. Another method is to use pieces of dead wood and the flower grows over the back along the wood to give the illusion from the front that the miniature tree blooms.

cpr and first aid bttn

First Aid and CPR Training

A-B-CPR will conduct four hours of new easy to learn curriculum on First Aid and CPR training. Cal-OHSA regulations require that employers must have one employee for every 20 or less employees who is trained in first aid.

Space is limited! Reservations must be received by October 19th.
English Session: Thursday, October 25, 2018 – 8:00 a.m.—12:00 p.m.
Spanish Session: Thursday, October 25, 2018 – 12:30 p.m.—4:30 p.m.

$75 per person (Members) $90 per person (Non-Members)

Location: Target Specialty Products
431 Daisy Lane, San Marcos, CA 92078

annual live plant meeting 2016

Annual Live Plant Growers Meeting

San Diego County Farm Bureau Eric Larson will be our Guest Speaker updating us on the important issues that effect our industry.

SDC Farm Bureau
Nov. 7, 2018 6:00 pm
(Dinner & Meeting at 7:00)
420 S. Broadway, Escondido 92025

Cost: $50-Members, $55-Non Members, $60 at the door

EVENT SPONSORS
AHS-American AgCredit-Berger-Green-Planet Soil-Harrell’s-SDG&ESorensen-G.H.-Target Specialty Products

golf tourney button

54th Annual Golf Tournament

The San Diego Flower & Plant Association invites you to attend their 54th Annual Golf Tournament

Golf and Dinner event featuring prizes for: closest to the pin, longest drive, putting contest

Thursday, Sept. 20, 2018 – 1 p.m. Shotgun start
Registration begins 11:30 am
Dinner immediately following golf game

Location: Twin Oaks Golf Course
1425 North Twin Oaks Valley Rd.
San Marcos, CA 92069

Succulents

Succulent plant

In botany, succulent plants, also known as succulents, are plants that have some parts that are more than normally thickened and fleshy, usually to retain water in arid climates or soil conditions. The word “succulent” comes from the Latin word sucus, meaning juice, or sap. Succulent plants may store water in various structures, such as leaves and stems. Some definitions also include roots, thus geophytes that survive unfavorable periods by dying back to underground storage organs may be regarded as succulents. In horticultural use, the term “succulent” is sometimes used in a way which excludes plants that botanists would regard as succulents, such as cacti. Succulents are often grown as ornamental plants because of their striking and unusual appearance.

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Orchidaceae

The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.

Along with the Asteraceae, they are one of the two largest families of flowering plants. The Orchidaceae have about 28,000 currently accepted species, distributed in about 763 genera. The determination of which family is larger is still under debate, because verified data on the members of such enormous families are continually in flux. Regardless, the number of orchid species nearly equals the number of bony fishes and is more than twice the number of bird species, and about four times the number of mammal species. The family also encompasses about 6–11% of all seed plants. The largest genera are Bulbophyllum (2,000 species), Epidendrum (1,500 species), Dendrobium (1,400 species) and Pleurothallis (1,000 species).

The family also includes Vanilla (the genus of the vanilla plant), Orchis (type genus), and many commonly cultivated plants such as Phalaenopsis and Cattleya. Moreover, since the introduction of tropical species into cultivation in the 19th century, horticulturists have produced more than 100,000 hybrids and cultivars.

Orchids are easily distinguished from other plants, as they share some very evident, shared derived characteristics, or “apomorphies“. Among these are: bilateral symmetry of the flower (zygomorphism), many resupinate flowers, a nearly always highly modified petal (labellum), fused stamens and carpels, and extremely small seeds.

 

rose

Rose

A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over a hundred species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colors ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses.

Christmas Cactus

Christmas Cactus

Plants are offered for sale under a variety of common names. The earliest English common name was “Christmas cactus”. In Europe, where plants are largely produced for sale in the period before Christmas, this remains the most widely used common name in many languages for cultivars of all groups (e.g. Weihnachtskaktus in German,[22] cactus de Noël in French,[23] and cacto de Navidad in Spanish[24]). This is also the name used in Canada.[25] In the United States, where plants are produced for the Thanksgiving holiday in November, the name “Thanksgiving cactus” is used; “Christmas cactus” may then be restricted to cultivars of the Buckleyi Group,[26] particularly the very old cultivars such as ‘Buckleyi’.[25] The name “crab cactus” (referring to the clawed ends of the stems) is also used for the Truncata Group.[27] “link cactus” is another common name, describing the way that the stems of the genus as a whole are made up of linked segments.[25] The name “chain cactus” is common in New Zealand, and may also refer to Hatiora species

blueskye dinner button

Dinner and Meeting with Chris Berg, President of BlueSkye Creative

Introducing: Chris Berg, President of BlueSkye Creative

Chris will be presenting a unique portfolio of marketing concepts to pitch our industry’s product in a B2B environment.

BlueSkye Creative is a San Diego based marketing firm specializing in the horticulture industry. As the leader of BlueSkye Creative, Chris has worked on in-depth marketing programs for breeders, brokers, growers and retailers across the globe. This past July, BlueSkye Creative and their client, PlantHaven International, accepted the industry’s Medal of Excellence in Marketing award at the Cultivate ’17 in Columbus, Ohio. Chris’ major strengths include business-to-business marketing, product development and box store retail presentations and programs. He is known for his out of the box ideas for retail packaging design and innovative marketing and sales tools for business-to-business promotions.

Location: Thompson Rose Co., Inc.
949 Cassou Rd., San Marcos 92069

$50 member/$55 non member/$60 at the door

Sponsors
AHS, American AgCredit-Berger, Grangetto, Green Planet Soil, Harrell’s, SDG&E, Sorensen G.H., Target Specialty Products, Zenith Ins.

Sunflower

Sunflower

History of the Amazing Sunflower
Close-up of a single
blooming sunflower
in a field of sunflowers The story of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus ) is indeed amazing. The wild sunflower is native to North America but commercialization of the plant took place in Russia. It was only recently that the sunflower plant returned to North America to become a cultivated crop. But it was the American Indian who first domesticated the plant into a single headed plant with a variety of seed colors including black, white, red, and black/white striped.

American Indian Uses
Sunflower was a common crop among American Indian tribes throughout North America. Evidence suggests that the plant was cultivated by American Indians in present-day Arizona and New Mexico about 3000 BC. Some archaeologists suggest that sunflower may have been domesticated before corn.

Sunflower was used in many ways throughout the various American Indian tribes. Seed was ground or pounded into flour for cakes, mush or bread. Some tribes mixed the meal with other vegetables such as beans, squash, and corn. The seed was also cracked and eaten for a snack. There are references of squeezing the oil from the seed and using the oil in making bread.

Non-food uses include purple dye for textiles, body painting and other decorations. Parts of the plant were used medicinally ranging from snakebite to other body ointments. The oil of the seed was used on the skin and hair. The dried stalk was used as a building material. The plant and the seeds were widely used in ceremonies.

European Developments
Cloth bag and small packages
of sunflower from early century
time period This exotic North American plant was taken to Europe by Spanish explorers some time around 1500. The plant became widespread throughout present-day Western Europe mainly as an ornamental, but some medicinal uses were developed. By 1716, an English patent was granted for squeezing oil from sunflower seed.

Sunflower became very popular as a cultivated plant in the 18th century. Most of the credit is given to Peter the Great. The plant was initially used as an ornamental, but by 1769 literature mentions sunflower cultivated by oil production. By 1830, the manufacture of sunflower oil was done on a commercial scale. The Russian Orthodox Church increased its popularity by forbidding most oil foods from being consumed during Lent. However, sunflower was not on the prohibited list and therefore gained in immediate popularity as a food.

By the early 19th century, Russian farmers were growing over 2 million acres of sunflower. During that time, two specific types had been identified: oil-type for oil production and a large variety for direct human consumption. Government research programs were implemented. V. S. Pustovoit developed a very successful breeding program at Krasnodar. Oil contents and yields were increased significantly. Today, the world’s most prestigious sunflower scientific award is known as The Pustovoit Award.

Sunflower Back to North America
By the late 19th century, Russian sunflower seed found its way into the US. By 1880, seed companies were advertising the ‘Mammoth Russian’ sunflower seed in catalogues. This particular seed name was still being offered in the US in 1970, nearly 100 years later. A likely source of this seed movement to North America may have been Russian immigrants. The first commercial use of the sunflower crop in the US was silage feed for poultry. In 1926, the Missouri Sunflower Growers’ Association participated in what is likely the first processing of sunflower seed into oil.

Canada started the first official government sunflower breeding program in 1930. The basic plant breeding material utilized came from Mennonite (immigrants from Russia) gardens. Acreage spread because of oil demand. By 1946, Canadian farmers built a small crushing plant. Acreage spread into Minnesota and North Dakota. In 1964, the Government of Canada licensed the Russian cultivar called Peredovik. This seed produced high yields and high oil content. Acreage increased in the US with commercial interest in the production of sunflower oil. Sunflower was hybridized in the middle seventies providing additional yield and oil enhancement as well as disease resistance.

Back to Europe
U.S. acreage escalated in the late 70’s to over 5 million because of strong European demand for sunflower oil. This European demand had been stimulated by Russian exports of sunflower oil in the previous decades. During this time, animal fats such as beef tallow for cooking were negatively impacted by cholesterol concerns. However, the Russians could no longer supply the growing demand, and European companies looked to the fledging U.S. industry. Europeans imported sunflower seed that was then crushed in European mills. Western Europe continues to be a large consumer of sunflower oil today, but depends on its own production. U.S. exports to Europe of sunflower oil or seed for crushing is quite small.

Summary
The native North American sunflower plant has finally come back home after a very circuitous route. It is the Native Americans and the Russians who completed the early plant genetics and the North Americans who put the finishing touches on it in the form of hybridization. Those early ancestors would quickly recognize their contributions to today’s commercial sunflower if they were here.

 

The reference for this summary was taken from: Albert A. Schneiter, ed. Sunflower Technology and Production, (The American Society of Agronomy No. 35, 1997) 1-19.